Changing the Odds is making an impact on youth by decreasing risky sexual and academic behavior. An independent evaluator, Metis Associates has found that Changing the Odds had a positive effect on increasing credit accumulation and school-day attendance among participants:


credit accumulation

attendance data


Metis Associates also found that participants in Changing the Odds perceived that the program made them more likely to use birth control should they decide to become sexually active:


perception of program impact


use of the sbhc

Within Treatment Group Analyses

  •  Approximately half of the CTO participants reported that participating in the CTO program made them less likely to have intercourse in the next year.
  • Seventy percent of CTO participants said that they are more likely to use a condom, and over half of the participants said they are more likely to use another form of birth control, because of their participation in the program.
  • In terms of other risky behaviors (such as cigarette and marijuana smoking andgetting into fights), regression analyses indicated that students who had higher participation in the program had fewer incidences of risky behaviors.
  • Furthermore, students who participated in the CTO program had higher school-day attendance as well.
  • There was also a positive relationship between middle school students’ visits to the school-based health center and their NYS ELA test scores.

Treatment vs. Control Analyses

  • Students in the Treatment group were more likely than students in the control group to make it the whole year without failing a course.
  • Students in the Treatment group  were less likely to receive a failing grade than students in the control group.
  • Among the treatment group students who said they cut class on the pre-survey, reversed their answers by the end of the program indicating that they did not cut class, while there was virtually no change in the control group.
  • Treatment group students who did not cut classes during the time of the pre-survey, were more likely to continue to not cut throughout the academic year.


Participating students perceived that the program was effective in reducing their involvement in risky behaviors and increasing their likelihood of using condoms and other forms of birth control. There is also evidence that the program is having a positive impact on their academic outcomes by reducing students’ frequency in cutting classes and by increasing their school-day attendance and credit accumulation towards graduation, as well as increasingtheir knowledge and use of the school-based health centers.